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قرص tranexamic acid چیست
قرص tranexamic acid چیست


Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss from major trauma, postpartum bleeding, surgery, tooth removal, nosebleeds, and heavy menstruation.[1][2] It is also used for hereditary angioedema.[1][3] It is taken either by mouth or injection into a vein.[1]

Side effects are rare.[3] Some include changes in color vision, blood clots, and allergic reactions.[3] Greater caution is recommended in people with kidney disease.[4] Tranexamic appears to be safe for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[3][5] Tranexamic acid is in the antifibrinolytic family of medications.[4]

Tranexamic acid was first made in 1962 by Japanese researchers Shosuke and Utako Okamoto.[6] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] Tranexamic acid is available as a generic medication.[8] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 4.38 to 4.89 USD for a course of treatment.[9] In the United States, a course of treatment costs between 100 to 200 USD.[8]

Tranexamic acid is frequently used following major trauma.[10] Tranexamic acid is used to prevent and treat blood loss in a variety of situations, such as dental procedures for hemophiliacs, heavy menstrual bleeding, and surgeries with high risk of blood loss.[11][12]
قرص tranexamic acid چیست

Tranexamic acid has been found to decrease the risk of death in people who have significant bleeding due to trauma.[13][14] Its main benefit is if taken within the first three hours.[15] It has been shown to reduce death due to any cause and death due to bleeding.[16] Further studies are assessing the effect of tranexamic acid in isolated brain injury.[17]

Tranexamic acid is used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding.[12] When taken by mouth it both safely and effectively treats regularly occurring heavy menstrual bleeding and improves quality of life.[18][19][20] Another study demonstrated that the dose does not need to be adjusted in females who are between ages 12 and 16.[18]

Tranexamic acid is used after delivery to reduce bleeding, often with oxytocin.[21] Death due to postpartum bleeding was reduced in women receiving tranexamic acid.[2]

In the United States, tranexamic acid is FDA approved for short-term use in people with severe bleeding disorders who are about to have dental surgery.[27] Tranexamic acid is used for a short period of time before and after the surgery to prevent major blood loss and decrease the need for blood transfusions.[28]

Tranexamic acid is used in dentistry in the form of a 5% mouth rinse after extractions or surgery in patients with prolonged bleeding time; e.g., from acquired or inherited disorders.[29][needs update]

There is not enough evidence to support the routine use of tranexamic acid to prevent bleeding in people with blood cancers.[30] However, there are several trials that are currently assessing this use of tranexamic acid.[30] For people with inherited bleeding disorders (e.g. von Willebrand’s disease), tranexamic acid is often given.[17] It has also been recommended for people with acquired bleeding disorders (e.g., directly acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs)) to treat serious bleeding.[31]

The use of tranexamic acid, applied directly to the area that is bleeding or taken by mouth, appears useful to treat nose bleeding compared to packing the nose with cotton pledgets alone.[32][33][34]

Common side effects include:[18]

Rare side effects include:[18]

These rare side effects were reported in post marketing experience and frequencies cannot be determined.[18] It does not appear to increase the risk of blood clots.[42]

Tranexamic acid is a synthetic analog of the amino acid lysine. It serves as an antifibrinolytic by reversibly binding four to five lysine receptor sites on plasminogen. This reduces conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, preventing fibrin degradation and preserving the framework of fibrin’s matrix structure.[18] Tranexamic acid has roughly eight times the antifibrinolytic activity of an older analogue, ε-aminocaproic acid.[citation needed] Tranexamic acid also directly inhibits the activity of plasmin with weak potency (IC50 = 87 mM),[44] and it can block the active-site of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) with high specificity (Ki = 2 mM) among all the serine proteases.[45]

Tranexamic acid was first synthesized in 1962 by Japanese researchers Shosuke and Utako Okamoto.[6] It has been included in the WHO list of essential medicines.[46] TXA is inexpensive and treatment would be considered highly cost effective in high, middle and low income countries.[47]

Tranexamic acid is marketed in the U.S. and Australia in tablet form as Lysteda and in Australia and Jordan it is marketed in an IV form and tablet form as Cyklokapron, in the UK as Cyclo-F and Femstrual, in Asia as Transcam, in Bangladesh as Tracid, in India as Pause, in South America as Espercil, in Japan as Nicolda, in France, Belgium and Romania as Exacyl and in Egypt as Kapron. In the Philippines, its capsule form is marketed as Hemostan and In Israel as Hexakapron.[citation needed]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved tranexamic acid oral tablets (brand name Lysteda) for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding on 13 November 2009.[citation needed]

In March 2011 the status of tranexamic acid for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding was changed in the UK, from PoM (Prescription only Medicines) to P (Pharmacy Medicines)[48] and became available over the counter in UK pharmacies under the brand names of Cyklo-F and Femstrual, initially exclusively for Boots pharmacy, which has sparked some discussion about availability.[49] (In parts of Europe it had then been available OTC for over a decade.[citation needed]) Regular liver function tests are recommended when using tranexamic acid over a long period of time.[50]

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ترانکزامیک اسید (به انگلیسی: Tranexamic acid)

رده درمانی: داروهای ضدانعقادی

اشکال دارویی: آمپول ، قرص و دهانشویه

درمان خون‌ریزی زیاد قاعدگی هایپرمنوره و سایر موارد خون‌ریزی مانند خون‌ریزی بعد از کشیدن دندان و خون دماغ (اپیستاکسی).
قرص tranexamic acid چیست

ترانکزامیک اسید با ممانعت از عملکرد پلاسمین مانع لیز شدن لخته‌های خونی می‌شود. ترانکزامیک اسید آنالوگ لیزین است و به پلاسمینوژن و پلاسمین باند می‌شود و توانایی آن‌ها را برای باند شدن به باقی‌مانده لیزین در فیبرین مهار می‌کند و بنابراین مانع فیبرینولیز می‌شود.

تهوع ، اسهال ، سردرد، علایم سینوس و بینی، درد پشت، درد شکم، درد عضلانی مفصلی، کرامپ‌های عضلانی، کم خونی و خستگی.

انعقاد خون

مجری طرح پایلوت : انجمن داروسازان اصفهان

تحت نظارت معاونت غذا و دارو

مسئولیت صحت اطلاعات بر عهده داروخانه می باشد

*دریافت دارو فقط بصورت حضوری در محل داروخانه و با نسخه کامل امکان پذیر است*

چنانچه در خصوص “ترانگزامیک اسید” سوالی دارید، عارضه خاصی مشاهده نموده اید و یا مطلب ویژه ای به نظرتان می رسد با دیگران به اشتراک بگذارید

الف) خونريزي بعد از جراحي دندان در بيماران مبتلا به هموفيلي (پيشگيري و درمان).
ب) خونريزي بعد از اعمال جراحي.
پ) برداشت پروستات يا جراحي مثانه : مقدار يك گرم 4-3 بار در روز ، از روز چهارم بعد از جراحي مصرف مي‌شود (در سه روز اول بعد از جراحي، دارو به صورت تزريق وريدي مصرف مي‌شود).
ت) خونريزي ناشي از هيپرفيبرينوليز.
ث) كهير غول آساي ارثي: مقدار 1.5-1 گرم ، 3-2 بار در روز مصرف مي‌شود. بعضي از بيماران مي‌توانند شروع حمله را احساس كنند و ممكن است با بروز اولين علائم حمله درمان را شروع كنند و به مدت چند روز ادامه دهند. در ساير بيماران همين مقدار مصرف به طول مداوم تجويز مي‌شود.

اسيد ترانگزاميك به طور رقابتي از فعال شدن پلاسمينوژن جلوگيري مي‌كند و در نتيجه، تبديل پلاسمينوژن به پلاسمين (فيبرينوليزين) را كاهش مي‌دهد. پلاسمين آنزيمي است كه موجب تجزيه لخته‌هاي فيبرين و فيبرينوژن و ساير پروتئينهاي پلاسما، از جمله فاكتورهاي پيش انعقادي V و VIII مي‌شود. همچنين ، اسيد ترانگزاميك به طور مستقيم فعاليت پلاسمين را مهار مي‌كند، اما مقادير لازم براي اين عمل بيش از مقادير لازم براي كاهش تشكيل پلاسمين است.
در بيماران مبتلا به كهير غول آساي ارثي، مهار تشكيل و فعاليت پلاسمين توسط اسيد ترانگزاميك ممكن است از بروز حملات كهير غول آسا جلوگيري كند. اين عمل از طريق كاهش فعال شدن جزء اول كمپلمان (C1) توسط پلاسمين انجام مي‌شود.

وجود لخته فعال داخل عروق (خطر تشكيل ترومبوز شديد و حتي كشنده وجود دارد).

موارد احتياط:اختلال اكتسابي در بينايي رنگها (اين مورد در سنجش بينايي رنگها كه ممكن است براي تعيين مسموميت ضروري باشد، تداخل دارد)، هماچوري با منشأ قسمت فوقاني مجاري ادراري (در صورت هماچوري شديد، خطر انسداد داخل كليوي ناشي از احتباس لخته در لگنچه كليه و حالبها وجود دارد. اگر هماچوري همراه با بيماري پارانشيمي كليوي باشد، ممكن است فيبرين در داخل عروق رسوب كرده و بيماري را تشديد كند)، خونريزي زير عنكبوتيه (خطر بروز ادم و انفاركتوس مغزي افزايش مي‌يابد)، عيب كار كليه (دارو ممكن است تجمع يابد؛ تنظيم مقدار مصرف بر اساس ميزان عيب كار كليه‌ها توصيه شده است)، سابقه حساسيت به اسيد ترانگزاميك، سابقه يا زمينه تشكيل ترومبوز (از انحلال لخته جلوگيري مي‌كند و ممكن است با مكانيسم هاي بازنگهدارنده عروق خوني تداخل كند؛ در صورت لزوم مصرف اسيد ترانگزاميك، مصرف همزمان آن با يك دارو ضد انعقاد توصيه شده است).

قلبي ـ ‌عروقي: كمي فشار خون (سرگيجه يا منگي، خستگي يا ضعف غيرمعمول) (ممكن است ناشي از تزريق سريع وريدي باشد)، ترومبوز يا ترومبوآمبولي (سردرد ناگهاني و شديد، درد قفسه سينه، كشاله ران، يا ساق پاها، از دست رفتن ناگهاني تعادل بدن، تنگي نفس ناگهاني و بدون علت، اختلال در تكلم، تغييرات بينايي، ضعف يا كرختي در بازو يا ساق پا) (به محل تشكيل ترومبوز يا آمبولي بستگي دارد).
چشم: تاري ديد يا ساير تغييرات بينايي.
دستگاه گوارش: اسهال ، تهوع، استفراغ.
ساير عوارض: ناراحتي غيرمعمول در قاعدگي (ناشي از لخته شدن خون قاعدگي).قرص tranexamic acid چیست

مصرف همزمان با كمپلكس ضد مهار انعقادي يا فاكتور IX كمپلكس ممكن است خطر بروز عواقب ترومبوتيك را افزايش دهد.
مصرف همزمان با داروهاي خوراكي جلوگيري كننده از بارداري حاوي استروژن يا استروژنها ممكن است خطر تشكيل ترومبوز را افزايش دهد.
اسيد ترانگزاميك متضاد داروهاي ترومبوليتيك (مانند استرپتوكيناز، يا اوروكيناز) است. اسيد ترانگزاميك ممكن است در درمان خونريزي شديد ناشي از داروهاي ترومبوليتيك مؤثر باشد.

FDA طبقه بندی: B.

در شير ترشح مي‌شود. غلظت اين دارو در شير تقريباً يك درصد غلظت پلاسمايي مادر است.

برای اطلاع از مقدار و نحوه مصرف دارو با پزشک مشورت کنید.

انجام اقدامات زير در پيگيري وضعيت بيمار اهميت دارند:
معاينات چشمي، از جمله آزمونهاي صحت بينايي، بينايي رنگها، ته چشم و ميدان بينايي (انجام اين آزمونها قبل و در فواصل منظم در طول درمان براي بيماراني كه اين دارو را به مدتي بيش از چند روز مصرف مي‌كنند، توصيه شده است، زيرا اسيد ترانگزاميك موجب بروز استحاله موضعي شبكيه چشم در حيوانات و اختلالات بينايي در انسان شده است، هرچند كه ضايعات شبكيه گزارش نشده است).

1ـ دارو را طبق دستور مصرف نماييد.
2ـ در صورت فراموش كردن يك نوبت مصرف دارو، به محض به ياد آوردن، آن را مصرف كنيد، ولي اگر تقريباً زمان مصرف نوبت بعدي فرا رسيده باشد، از مصرف آن خودداري كرده و مقدار مصرف بعدي را نيز دو برابر نكنيد.
3ـ در حين درمان طولاني مدت، به طور مرتب به چشم پزشك مراجعه كنيد.
مصرف در سالمندان: عوارضي براي بيماران سالخورده ثابت نشده است.
مصرف در كودكان: عوارضي براي كودكان ثابت نشده است.

Tablet: 500mg
Capsule: 250mg
Injection: 50 mg/ml, 5ml, 100 mg/ml, 10ml, 100 mg/ml, 5ml

امين     تولید شده              CAPSULE      TRANCID® 250MG CAP
امين     تولید شده       CAPSULE      TRANEXAMIC ACID 250 CAP
کاسپين تامين     تولید شده     AMPOULE     TRANEXIP® 500MG/5ML AMP


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This leaflet is about the use of tranexamic acid for:

This leaflet has been written specifically for parents and carers about the use of this medicine in children. The information may differ from that provided by the manufacturer. Please read this leaflet carefully. Keep it somewhere safe so that you can read it again.
 

Tranexamic acid
Brand name: Cyklokapron®

In haemophilia and other clotting problems, the blood does not clot as well as it should. Tranexamic acid helps to stop blood clots from breaking down, so it reduces bleeding. Your child may need to take tranexamic acid to prevent severe bleeding after certain procedures such as minor operations or having a tooth out, or to stop bleeding from the nose or mouth. 

Tranexamic acid is usually given two or three times each day. Your doctor will tell you how often to give it.قرص tranexamic acid چیست

Give the medicine at about the same times each day so that this becomes part of your child’s daily routine, which will help you to remember.

Your doctor will tell you how long to give the medicine for. If it is to prevent severe bleeding after an operation or to treat bleeding from the mouth or nose, you can usually stop giving tranexamic acid when the bleeding has stopped.

If your child has heavy bleeding or still has bleeding 8 days after having an operation or dental treatment, contact your doctor.

Your doctor will work out the amount of tranexamic acid (the dose) that is right for your child. The dose will be shown on the medicine label.

It is important that you follow your doctor’s instructions about how much to give.

Tablets should be swallowed with a glass of water, milk or juice. Your child should not chew the tablet.

You can crush the tablet and mix it with a small amount of soft food such as yogurt, honey or jam. Make sure your child swallows it straight away, without chewing.

Liquid medicine: Measure out the right amount using a an oral syringe or medicine spoon. You can get these from your pharmacist. Do not use a kitchen teaspoon as it will not give the right amount. Make sure your child takes it all straight away.

The medicine should start working straight away and it should reduce your child’s bleeding on the first day.

Never give a double dose of tranexamic acid.

You are unlikely to do harm if you give an extra dose of tranexamic acid by mistake but your child is more likely to have side-effects. If you are concerned that you may have given too much, contact your doctor or NHS Direct (0845 46 47 in England and Wales; 08454 24 24 24 in Scotland). Have the medicine or packaging with you if you telephone for advice.

We use medicines to make our children better, but sometimes they have other effects that we don’t want (side-effects).

Tranexamic acid sometimes causes serious side-effects. These are not likely to happen and the benefit of taking the medicine is greater than the risk of these effects. There is a very small risk that tranexamic acid may cause a clot in another part of the body. If any of the following happen, take your child to hospital or call an ambulance straight away:

If your child has problems with seeing colours, contact your doctor straight away. The medicine may need to be stopped.

There may, sometimes, be other side-effects that are not listed above. If you notice anything unusual and are concerned, contact your doctor.

If your child still has bleeding 8 days after their operation or dental treatment, contact your doctor. Do not change the dose of tranexamic acid without talking to your doctor first.
In some children, tranexamic acid may be taken regularly to prevent frequent nose bleeds.

If you think someone else may have taken the medicine by accident, contact your doctor straight away.

Your doctor, pharmacist or nurse will be able to give you more information about tranexamic acid and about other medicines used to treat bleeding.

Version 1, November 2012. © NPPG, RCPCH and WellChild 2011, all rights reserved. Reviewed by: November 2015.

The primary source for the information in this leaflet is the British National Formulary for Children. For details on any other sources used for this leaflet, please contact us through our website, www.medicinesforchildren.org.uk

We take great care to make sure that the information in this leaflet is correct and up-to-date. However, medicines can be used in different ways for different patients. It is important that you ask the advice of your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure about something. This leaflet is about the use of these medicines in the UK, and may not apply to other countries. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH), the Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacists Group (NPPG), WellChild and the contributors and editors cannot be held responsible for the accuracy of information, omissions of information, or any actions that may be taken as a consequence of reading this leaflet.

Medicines for Children
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قرص tranexamic acid چیست
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